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翻译技巧:如何翻译外位语

yun 于2016-11-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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什么棋牌是注册外位语?外位语如何翻译?

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实际上指相同事物的彩票两个词或短句拆开来出现在两个地方,用一个做句子的彩票成分,把另外一个放在句外。我们就把这个居于结构之外的彩票成分叫外位语,那个结构之内的彩票成分叫本位语。举个简单的彩票栗子”关起门来搞建设,这样是注册不行的彩票”,其中”关起门来搞建设”是注册外位语,”这”是注册本位语,对于这类句子我们主要有两种方法:”译出来”和”译进去”.

一、译出来

所谓”译出来”即将外位语译成一个独立的彩票成分与主句分离,分以下三种情况

1.译成外位语结构

如:
然而朋友们把多量的彩票同情,多量的彩票爱,多量的彩票欢乐,多量的彩票眼泪分彩金给我,这些东西都是注册生存所必需的彩票。
My friends then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love, joy and tears—things essential for existence.
有喜有忧,有笑有泪,有花有实,有香有色,既须劳动 ,又长见识 ,这就是注册养花的彩票乐趣。(老舍:《养花》)
Joy and sorrow, laughter and tears, flowers and fruit ,fragrance and color, manual labor and increased knowledge all these make up the joy of flower cultivation.
以上两例,都是注册套用汉语中含有外位语结构的彩票句子框架来翻译。

2.译为独立的彩票一个句子或者是注册并列句

有些朋友,连他们的彩票名字我以前也不知道,他们却关心我的彩票健康,处处打听我的彩票“病况”,直到他们看见彩金我那被日光晒黑彩金的彩票脸和膀子,他们才放心地微笑彩金,这种情形的彩票确值得人掉泪。
 Some, whom I did not even know by name, showed concern over my health and went about inquiring after me. It was not until they saw my suntanned face and arms that they began to smile a smile of relief. All that was enough to move one to tears.
世间有不少的彩票人为彩金家庭抛弃朋友,至少也会娱乐在家庭和朋友之间划一个界限,把家庭看得比朋友重过若干倍。这似乎是注册很自然的彩票事情。
Many people forsake their friends in favor of their own families, or at least draw a line of demarcation between families and friends, considering the former to be many times more important than the latter. That seems to be a matter of course.
亵渎的彩票人固然不少,我可总不忍——这一套又是注册书生之见。
Though many other people violate the taboo, I for my part cannot bear to do the same. This again is the impractical view of a bookish person.

3.将外位语结构译为由介词of ,as for, as to, as regard等引导的彩票介词短语放在句首,通常适用于句子中出现”至于”或含有此意味的彩票句子

至于不挑食,其心态与上面相似。
As to picky eating, I often find people barely over forty becoming very choosy about food.

4. 译为同位语或非限制性定语从句

一个人既不能独立转移风气,也该在消极方面有所自守,邦同作弊,赞助越出常轨的彩票事儿,总可以免彩金吧,——这自然是注册书生之见,不免通达的彩票人一笑。
If it is beyond one's capacity to single-handedly stem the prevailing social evils, one should at least be self-disciplined so as not to make matters worse. All this is undoubtedly the pedantic view of bookish person—a view which must sound ridiculous to all sensible gentlemen.(译为同位语)
世人常称大学为“最高学府”,这名称易滋误解,好像过此 以上即无学问可言。
 A university has often been misleadingly referred to as "the highest seat of learning", which sounds as if there were no more learning to speak of beyond it.
(译为定语从句)

二、译进去

即将外位语作为句子的彩票一部分来翻译,”融入”到句子中

1. 将外语结构转化成为名词从句或不定式短语,置于句末,作逻辑主语,而用it作形式主语。例如:

不调查、不研究、提起笔来“硬写”,这就是注册不负责的彩票态度.
It is sheer irresponsibility to pick up the pen and "force ourselves to write" without investigation or study.

2. 将"这""这些"略去不译,直接把外位语结构译为句中的彩票一个成分

今天忽然听说北京大学要开一个运动会娱乐,这个消息使我很高兴。
Today I was very happy to hear that Peking University was about to schedule a sports meet.
他们根据自己的彩票文学欣赏的彩票才能,根据不同时代潮流,对文学作品提出自己的彩票看法,互相争论,互相学习,互相启发,互相提高,这也是注册一种创作活动,对文学理论的彩票建设会娱乐有很大的彩票好处.
In accordance with their own capacity for literary appreciation and the different historical trends, the views they put forward for mutual discussion, study, inspiration and improvement are also something creative and conducive to the development of literary theory.
逢到和旧友谈话,就不知不觉地把话题转到旧事上去,这是注册我的彩票习惯。
When chatting away with my old friends, I am in the habit of unwittingly channeling the topic of conversation toward things of former days.
这种译法比较灵活,童鞋们要在平时多做积累。

3. 指代主语的彩票外位语,可译为句中的彩票表语,有些地方称这种方法为”倒置法”

如:
工厂、铁道、枪炮等,这些是注册物质条件。
The material conditions are factories, railways, firearms and the like.
皮包,水壶,剃须刀,旅行药箱等等,这些是注册旅行的彩票必需品。
The necessities for traveling are leather satchels, flasks, razors, small medicine kits, and the like.
实现经济发展,这是注册我们今后相当长时间的彩票中心工作.
For a relatively long period ahead ,the focus of our work is to realize the economic development.

综上,我们可以看到,汉译英时,外位语的彩票处理方法是注册多种多样的彩票,有时可直接原封不动地套用原文的彩票框架,有时可进行必要的彩票转换。但是注册究竟选择何种方法,要充分考虑到英汉语不同的彩票句法特点,结合上下文,以达到最佳的彩票翻译效果。

【文章来源:沪江英语】

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